Aph. 1. Now, then, the exposition of yoga or Concentration [is to be made].
Aph. 2. Concentration (yoga) is the hindering of the modifications of the thinking principle.
Aph. 3. Then [i.e. at the time of Concentration] it [the Soul] abides in the form of the spectator [without a spectacle].
Aph. 4. At other times [than that of Concentration] it [the Soul] is in the same form as the modifications [of the internal organ § 2. b. and 5],
Aph. 5. The modifications [of the internal organ] are of five kinds, [and they are either] painful or not painful.
Aph. 6. [The modifications of the internal organ are] evidence [or right notion], misconception, fancy, sleep, and memory.
Aph. 7. The evidences [§6.] are Perception, Inference, and Testimony.
Aph. 8. Misconception is a wrong notion, not staying in the [proper] form of that [in respect whereof the misconception is entertained].
Aph. 9. A fancy is [a notion] devoid of a thing [in reality corresponding thereto], following upon knowledge [conveyed] by words.
Aph. 10. Sleep (1) is that modification [of the internal organ] which depends on the conception of nothing. 1. Dreamless Sleep.
Aph. 11. Memory is the not letting go of an object that one has been aware of.
Aph. 12. The hindering of these [modifications of the internal organ § 2 is to be effected] by means of exercise and dispassion.
Aph. 13. 'Exercise' is the [repeated] effort that it [ viz. the internal organ ] shall remain in its [unmodified] state.
Aph. 14. But this [exercise § 13 ] is a firm position observed out of regard [for the end in view, and perseveringly adhered to] for a long time unintermittingly.
Aph. 15. Dispassion is the consciousness of having overcome one's desires, [this consciousness being that] of him who thirsts after neither the objects that are seen [on earth] nor those that are heard of [in scripture].
Aph. 16. This [viz. 'dispassion,'] carried to the utmost is indifference regarding the 'qualities' [i.e. everything else than Soul], and this indifference arises from a knowledge of Soul [as distinguished from the 'qualities']. [See Lecture on the Sankhya §49.]
Aph. 17. [Meditation of the kind called] that 'in which there is distinct recognition' [arises, in its fourfold shape,] from the attendance of (1) 'argumentation' (vitarka), (2) 'deliberation' (vichara), (3) 'beatitude' (ananda) and (4) 'egoism' (asmita).
Aph. 18. The one [kind of meditation just described] is preceded by the exercise of thought in the shape of repose; the other [ independent of any fresh antecedent ] is in the shape of the self reproduction [of thought, after the departure of all objects].
Aph. 19. Of [the meditative state attained to by the two classes of aspirants, technically called] 'the unembodied and resolved into Nature,' the world is the cause.
Aph. 20. [In the practice] of others this [Meditation] is preceded by Faith, Energy, Memory, Meditation, and Discernment.
Aph. 21. [The attainment of the state of abstract Meditation is] speedy in the case of the hotly impetuous.
Aph. 22. Through the 'mild,' the 'medium,' and the 'transcendent' [nature of the methods adopted] there is thence also a distinction [among the ascetics who adopt the methods].
Aph. 23. Or by profound devotedness towards the Lord, [the ascetic may attain to the state of abstract Meditation].
Aph. 24. The Lord is a particular Spirit (Purusha) untouched by troubles, works, fruits, or deserts.
Aph. 25. In him does the germ of the omniscient become infinite.
Aph. 26. He is the preceptor even of the first, for he is not limited by time.
Aph. 27. His name is Glory.
Aph. 28. Its repetition [should be made and also] reflection on its .signification.
Aph. 29. Thence comes the knowledge of the rightly intelligent [Spirit], and the absence of obstacles.
Aph. 30. Sickness, languor, doubt, carelessness, laziness, addiction to objects [of sense], erroneous perception, failure to attain any stage [of abstraction], and instability [in the state when attained], these distractions of the mind are obstacles [in the way of the ascetic].
Aph. 31. Grief, Distress, Trembling, and Sighing, are accompaniments of the distractions.
Aph. 32. For the prevention thereof let one truth be dwelt upon.
Aph. 33. Through the practising of benevolence, tenderness, complacency, and disregard towards objects [i.e. persons who are respectively in possession] of happiness, grief, virtue, and vice, the mind becomes purified.
Aph. 34. [Or, he may combat distraction] by forcibly expelling and by restraining the breath.
Aph. 35. Or a sensuous immediate cognition, being produced, may serve as a cause of the steadiness [of the mind].
Aph. 36. Or a luminous [immediate cognition, being produced,] free from sorrow, [may serve as a cause of the steadiness of the mind].
Aph. 37. Or the thought, taking as its object some one devoid of passion, [may find what will serve as a cause of the steadiness of the mind].
Aph. 38. Or the dwelling on knowledge [that presents itself] in dream, or in sleep, [may serve as a cause of the steadiness of the mind].
Aph. 39. Or [the steadying of the mind may be affected] by pondering anything that one approves.
Aph. 40. His mastery extends to the atomic and to the infinite.
Aph. 41. To that mind whose 'modifications' [ all save that there remains some one object of meditation ] have disappeared, there occurs, as [occurs] to a noble gem [ e. g. rock-crystal, when brought into conjunction with a coloured substance ], when intent on any one out of these viz. the perceiver, the perception, and the perceivable, a tinging thereby.
Aph. 42. This [change of the mind into the likeness of what is pondered § 41 ], when mixed up of the fancy of the 'word,' the 'meaning,' and the 'knowledge,' is [technically termed] the 'argumentative.'
Aph. 43. On the clearing off of the memory [of the word and the sense attached to it by convention], the [mental] display only of the thing itself as if of something indefinite [and no longer referred to any term no longer regarded as being what is meant by the word 'cow,' or what is meant by the word 'horse,' etc. ], this [affection of the mind which no longer reflects a mixed object of thought § 42 ] is that which is called [technically] the 'non-argumentive.'
Aph. 44. Just by this [mental affection under the two aspects explained in Aphorisms 42 and 43], that which is [technically termed] 'deliberative' (sa-vichdra), and [that termed] 'non-deliberative' (nirvichdra), where the object [pondered, instead of being gross as in these two preceding cases ] is 'subtile,' has been [sufficiently] explained ; [ the distinction between this pair, out of the four referred to at § 41 f., being the same as that between the other pair].
Aph. 45. And 'the having a subtile object' ends with the Indissoluble.
Aph. 46. These themselves constitute 'Meditation with its seed' [§17. b.]
Aph. 47. When wisdom has come, through the 'non-deliberative' [mental affection], there is spiritual clearness.
Aph. 48. In that case there is knowledge which holds to the truth.
Aph. 49. [This kind of knowledge differs] from the knowledge due to testimony and inference because the object of these two is not particulars but generals.
Aph. 50. The train [of self-reproductive thought] resulting from this puts a stop to other trains.
Aph. 51. On the removal of this also, since there is removal of all [the mental modifications], the Meditation is 'without a seed.'
Aph. 1. The practical [part of] Concentration is mortification (tapas), muttering (swadhyaya), and resignation (pranidhana) to the Lord.
Aph. 2. It is for the purpose of establishing meditation and for the purpose of extenuating afflictions.
Aph. 3. The afflictions are Ignorance, Egoism, Desire, Aversion, and Tenacity [of mundane existence].
Aph. 4. Ignorance is the field of the others, whether they be dormant, extenuated, intercepted, or simple.
Aph. 5. Ignorance (avidya) is the notion that the uneternal, the impure, evil, and what is not soul, is [severally] eternal, pure, joy, and soul.
Aph. 6. Egoism (asmita) is the identifying of the power that sees with the power of seeing.
Aph. 7. Desire is what dwells on pleasure.
Aph. 8. Aversion is what dwells on pain.
Aph. 9. Continuant through its self-reproductive property, even on the part of the wise, attachment to the body is 'Tenacity of life'.
Aph. 10. These, when subtile, are to be evaded by an antagonistic production.
Aph. 11. Their 'modifications' [ when the 'afflictions' modify the mind by pressing themselves upon the attention ] are to be got rid of by meditation.
Aph. 12. The stock of works, whose root is the 'afflictions,' is what is to be had fruition of in this visible state, or in that unseen.
Aph. 13. While there is the root, fructification is rank, years, and enjoyment.]
Aph. 14. These have joy or suffering as their fruits, accordingly as the cause is virtue or vice.
Aph. 15. And, to the discriminating, all is grief simply, since the modifications due to the Qualities are adverse [to the summum bonum] through the vexations of the various forms [of Nature], and of anxiety and impressions self-continuant.
Aph. 16. What is to be shunned is pain not yet come.
Aph. 17. The cause of what is to be shunned is the conjunction of the seer with the visual.
Aph. 18. The visual [ including the visible ] whose habit is illumination, action, and rest, and which consists of the Elements and the Organs, is for the sake of experience and emancipation.
Aph. 19. The divisions [of condition] of the Qualities are (1) the diverse, (2) the non-diverse, (3) the merely [once] resolvable, and (4) the irresolvable.
Aph. 20. The 'seer' [soul] is vision simply, though pure, looking directly on ideas.
Aph. 21. For the sake of it alone is the entity of the visible.
Aph. 22. Though it has ceased to be, in respect of him who has effected what is required, it has not ceased, [in regard to all], because it is common to others besides him.
Aph. 23. The conjunction is the cause of the apprehension of the actual condition of the natures of the possessed and the possessor.
Aph. 24. The cause thereof is what is to be quitted viz. Ignorance.
Aph. 25. The 'quitting' consists in the surcease of the conjunction, on that [Ignorance]; this is the isolation of the soul.
Aph. 26. The means of quitting [the state of bondage] is discriminative knowledge not discontinuous.
Aph. 27. Of that [enlightened soul] the perfect knowledge, up to the ground of the limit, is of seven kinds.
Aph. 28. Till there is discriminative knowledge, there is, from the practice of the things subservient to the Yoga, an illumination [more or less brilliant] of knowledge [which is operative] in the removal of impurity.
Aph. 29. The eight things subservient [to Concentration] are (1) forbearance, (2) religious observance, (3) postures, (4) suppression of the breath (5) restraint, (6) attention, (7) contemplation, and (8) meditation.
Aph. 30. 'Forbearance' (yama); consists of not killing, veracity, not stealing, continence, and not coveting.
Aph. 31. These, without respect to rank, place, time, or compact, are the universal great duty.
Aph. 32. Religious observances (niyama) are (1) purification, (2) contentment, (3) austerity, (4) inaudible mutterings, and (5) persevering devotion to the Lord.
Aph. 33. In excluding things questionable, the calling up something opposite [is serviceable].
Aph. 34. The 'things questionable,' killing, &c.; whether done, caused to be done, or approved of; whether resulting from covetousness, anger, or delusion; whether slight, of intermediate character, or beyond measure ; have no end of fruits [in the shape of] pain and ignorance; hence the calling up of something opposite [is every way advisable].
Aph. 35. When harmlessness is complete, near him, there is abandonment of enmity.
Aph. 36. When veracity is complete, he is the receptacle of the fruit of works.
Aph. 37. When abstinence from theft is complete, all jewels come near him.
Aph. 38. When continence is complete, there is gain of strength.
Aph. 39. When non-covetousness is established, there is knowledge of all about [former] states of existence.
Aph. 40. From 'purification,' results loathing for one's own members, and non-intercourse with others.
Aph. 41. And purity in the Quality of Goodness, complacency, intentness, subjugation of the senses, and fitness for the beholding of soul, [are fruits of 'purification'].
Aph. 42. From contentment there is acquired superlative felicity.
Aph. 43. The perfection of the bodily senses by the removal of impurity, [is the fruit] of austerity.
Aph. 44. Through inaudible muttering there is a meeting with one's favourite deity.
Aph. 45. Perfection in meditation comes from persevering devotion to the Lord.
Aph. 46. A 'posture' is what is steady and pleasant.
Aph. 47. Through slightness of effort and through attaining to the infinite [do 'postures,' become steady and pleasant].
Aph. 48. Thence there is no assault by the pairs.
Aph. 49. When this has taken place, there is regulation of the breath, a cutting short of the motion of inspiration and expiration.
Aph. 50. But this which is (1) outer, (2) inner, and (3) steady, peculiarised by place, time, and number, is long or short.
Aph. 51. The fourth recognises both the outer and the inner spheres.
Aph. 52. Thereby is removed the obscuration of the light.
Aph. 53. And the mind becomes fit for acts of attention.
Aph. 54. 'Restraint' is as it were the accommodation of the senses to the nature of the mind in the absence of concernment with each one's own object.
Aph. 55. Therefrom is there complete subjection of the senses.
Aph. 1. Fixing the internal organ [Chitta,] on a place is Dharana [attention].
Aph. 2. A course of uniform [fixed on only one object] modification of knowledge at that place [where the internal organ is fixed in Dharana] is Dhyana [contemplation].
Aph. 3. The same [contemplation] when it arises only about a material substance or object of sense, [and therefore] is [then] like a non-existence of itself [that is like ignorance] is Samadhi [meditation].
Aph. 4. These three [when they operate only] on one object, constitute Sanyama.
Aph. 5. By subduing Sanyama, a discerning principle is developed.
Aph. 6. Sanyama is to be used in the modifications [of the internal organ Chitta].
Aph. 7. The three Yogangas [i.e. attention, contemplation, and meditation] are more interior [i.e. immediately subservient to that kind of meditation in which there is distinct recognition i.e. Samprajnatasamadhi, See Aph. 17. Book. 1] than the first [five Togaugas, forbearance, &c.]
Aph. 8. Those three also are exterior to the meditation without a seed [Nirbija].
Aph. 9. Out of the two trains of self-reproductive thought, resulting from the Vyutthana and the Nirodha, when the former is subdued and the latter is manifested, and, at that moment of manifestation the internal organ [Chitta] is concerned in both of the trains, then, such modification of the internal organ is the modification in the shape of Nirodha.
Aph. 10. A uniform flow [of modifications of the internal organ arises] from the [aforesaid] train of self-reproductive thought.
Aph. 11. Out of the two [properties] of the internal organ chitta which consist of Sarvarthata [that is its comprehension of several objects] and Ekagrata [i.e. its intentness on a single point]; [when] the first is utterly destroyed and the second is manifested [at that time the connection of the internal organ with both of the properties or the state in which it exists as Dharmi, i.e. endowed with the two properties] is the modification of the internal organ in the shape of Samadhi [meditation].
Aph. 12. [When] the two particular states or modifications [pratyayas], the one tranquil [Santa] and the other reason [Udita], of the internal organ become equal, then its connection with both of the states is [its] modification in the shape of an intentness on a single point [Ekagrata].
Aph. 13. By this [exposition of the modifications of the internal organs] the [three] modifications in the shape of property [Dharma], indication [Lakshana] and position [Avastha] in [or of] the Elements and organs, have been [sufficiently] explained.
Aph. 14. A Dharmi is that which follows upon [or has] the properties in the shape of Santa [tranquil], Udita [risen] and Avyapadeshya [incapable of denomination].
Aph. 15. The altered state of the order [of the threefold modification just defined] is indicative of the variety of the modifications [which the same Dharmi is to undergo].
Aph. 16. A knowledge of past and future events [comes to an ascetic] from [his rendering] Sanyama restraint about the three modifications [just explained].
Aph. 17. A confusedness of Shabda [an uttered sound or a word] Artha i.e. [class, quality, action, &c.] and Pratyaya [knowledge] arises from comprehending these three indiscriminately. [But when an ascetic views these separately by performing Sanyama restraint with regard to them, a knowledge [is produced in him] of the speech of all living beings [i.e. he has a power of understanding their speech].
Aph. 18. A knowledge of the class [&c., experienced] in a former birth [arises] from presenting to our mind [Sakshatkarana] the trains of self-reproductive thought Sanskaras [of the internal organ].
Aph. 19. The mind of other persons becomes known to [an ascetic when he performs Sanyama restraint] with regard to the Pratyaya knowledge [contained in it, i.e., in the mind of other persons].
Aph. 20. It [i.e. the mind of other persons] is not comprehended with its Alambana support, i.e., object [to an ascetic] because it was not the object [of Sanyama which he, the ascetic, made use of in comprehending the mind].
Aph. 21. By performing Sanyama restraint about form [the property] of body [defined in Aph. 11. See the Nyaya Philosophy p. 16], its power of being apprehended [by the organ of sight] being checked, and luminousness, the property of the organ of sight having no connection [with its object, i.e. the form, the result] is the disappearance of the ascetic.
Aph. 22. By this, a concealment [Antardhana] of speech [Shabda] &c., is also stated.
Aph. 23. An action [karma] is two-fold; one accompanied by anticipation of consequences [Sopakrama] and other destitute of it [Nirupakrama]: from performing Sanyama restraint with regard to this two-fold action, a knowledge [arises in an ascetic] of the separation from [his] body Aparanta [i.e. death]. Or [the time of death is known] from portents [Arishta].
Aph. 24. [Superhuman] faculties [are manifested in an ascetic by performing restraint] in benevolence, &c.
Aph. 25. The faculties of an elephant, &c., [are manifested in an ascetic by performing restraint] in these faculties.
Aph. 26. A knowledge of the minute, concealed and distant [objects of sense arises in an ascetic] by his throwing the light of immediate cognition Pravritti [on them].
Aph. 27. A knowledge of [seven] worlds [arises in an ascetic] by his performing restraint in regard to the [luminous body] the sun.
Aph. 28. A knowledge of forms of the asterisms [arises in an ascetic] when he performs restraint with regard to the Moon.
Aph. 29. A knowledge of the motion of the stars [arises in an ascetic by his performing restraint] with regard to the polar star [Dhruva].
Aph. 30. A knowledge of the particular structure of the body [arises in an ascetic who performs his restraint] with regard to the circle of the navel.
Aph. 31. A cessation of hunger, thirst, etc. [takes place in an ascetic by performing his restraint with regard to the well of [his] throat.
Aph. 32. A firmness [of mind takes place when an ascetic performs his restraint] with regard to the vein [called] kurma [tortoise].
Aph. 33. [The ascetic] sees Sidhhas, the divine personages or spirits [when he performs his restraint] with regard to the light Jyotis of the head.
Aph. 34. Or [the ascetic] disregarding all other instrumental causes [knows] every thing from [only] Pratibha [a knowledge called Taraka].
Aph. 35. A knowledge about mind Chitta [arises in an ascetic, when he performs his restraint] with regard to the internal organ Hridaya.
Aph. 36. From conceiving indifferently the knowledge of the person [soul] and sattva [purity or the principle of understanding, Buddhitattva ] which are entirely different from each other, [a knowledge of joy and affliction arise and] that is enjoyment [Bhoga]. This enjoyment is another's object [Parartha], and an object different from this is the proper object [Svartha of the principle of understanding] and from performing restraint with regard to this proper object, a knowledge of the person [arises in an ascetic].
Aph. 37. From that, Pratibha, [Taraka a knowledge concerning all things, see Aph. 34, Book 3, and the knowledge caused by the organs] hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell arises in [the ascetic].
Aph. 38. These fruits are obstacles in the way of meditation and superhuman faculties [in the state of] non-meditation [Vyutthana].
Aph. 39. The mind of [the ascetic] enters the body of others by reason of the laxity of the cause of Bandha bondage, and by the knowledge of the process Prachara [of mind].
Aph. 40. A disunion [Asanga] with and a rising [Utkranti] from water, mud, thorns, etc., [take place] by conquering the Udana, one of the vital airs.
Aph. 41. A blazing [takes place] from conquering the air Samana.
Aph. 42. A divine organ of hearing [is developed in the ascetic] by his performing restraint with regard to the connection between [Shrotra] the organ of hearing and [Akasa] the ether.
Aph. 43. [A power] of walking through the air [is developed in the ascetic] by his obtaining a state of lightness like a light piece of cotton, etc., from performing his restraint with regard to the connection which a [man's] body has with air.
Aph. 44. The external modification [of the internal organ] akalpita, thoughtless, is [called] the great incorporeal [modification, mahavideha]: therefrom [results] the destruction of the obscuration of the illumination [of intellect].
Aph. 45. The conquering of the elements [takes place from, the ascetism [performed with regard to the five forms of the elements] gross [sthula] nature, [swarupa], subtile [sukshma], concomitant [anwaya] and possession of objects [arthavattwa].
Aph. 46. Therefrom spring up [three perfections i.e.] minuteness, &c., excellence of body, and non-destruction of the merits of it.
Aph. 47. The excellence of body consists of colour, loveliness, strength, and adamantine density.
Aph. 48. The conquering of the organs of sense result from the restraint performed with regard to perception, nature, egoism, concomitance, and possession of objects.
Aph. 49. Therefrom spring up velocity of mind the state of modification, and the conquest of nature.
Aph. 50. Omniscience and Supremacy over all existence arise merely [in the ascetic] who has the discriminative knowledge of the element of purity and soul.
Aph. 51. From an indifference even to this [perfection] through the destruction of the germ of perniciousness, results isolation.
Aph. 52. [The ascetic ought] not to form association and exhibit wonderment at the invitation of the tutelary dieties, for evil would again ensue.
Aph. 53. Knowledge springing from discrimination results from asceticism performed with regard to the relation between moments and to their order.
Aph. 54. Therefrom results discernment of two similar things, as there is non-discrimination by class, characteristic and place.
Aph. 55. The knowledge springing from discrimination is [called] saving [knowledge], has all things and the entire nature of all things for its objects, and is non-successive.
Aph. 56. On equalization of clearness of the pure quality [i.e. understanding] and soul, Isolation takes place.
Aph. 1. Perfections are produced by birth, herbs [of mysterious virtue,] incantations, penances and meditations.
Aph. 2. The change into another class is from the supply of natures.
Aph. 3. The occasional is the non-efficient cause of natures : thereby there is removal of obscurations, as in the case of a husbandman [who removes the impediments to the irrigation of his fields].
Aph. 4. The minds in the productions [ensue] from mere egoism.
Aph. 5. In different activities of [those] numerous [minds] one mind [of the ascetic] is the moving cause.
Aph. 6. Among these [minds produced by birth, &c.], that which springs from meditation is without subtratum.
Aph. 7. The work of an ascetic is neither pure nor dark, and that of others is of three kinds.
Aph. 8. Therefrom [results] manifestation of those mental deposits alone which are comformable to its fructification.
Aph. 9. There is an immediacy among those [impressions] though intercepted by rank [in the scale of being], place and time, because the recollection and the train of self-reproductive impression are identical [that is they are not different].
Aph. 10. They have eternity because the benediction is eternal.
Aph. 11. As [they are] collected by cause, effect, substratum and support [therefore] on non-existence of these, non-existence of the impressions takes place.
Aph. 12. That which is past and that which is to come does exist in its proper nature, for the course of properties is different.
Aph. 13. These individualised and subtile [objects] consist of qualities.
Aph. 14. Unity of thing results from unity of modification.
Aph. 15. The course of these two [that is, the thing and the object] is distinct, for there is a diversity of thoughts regarding one thing.
Aph. 16. An object is known or unknown to the mind inasmuch as the tint of the object is required [to it].
Aph. 17. The modification of the mental states are always known, because the presiding spirit is not modified.
Aph. 18. It is not self-illuminative inasmuch as it is cognisable.
Aph. 19. Attention to two [objects] cannot take place simultaneously.
Aph. 20. If one perception be cognisable by another then there would be the further necessity of cognition of cognition and a confusion of recollection also would take place.
Aph. 21. The self-knowledge of cognition takes place when the intelligence [soul] which is non-transeunt acquires the shape of understanding.
Aph. 22. The thinking principle [i.e. intellect] tinged by the knower and the knowable is the totality of objects.
Aph. 23. Though variegated by innumerable impressions [mental deposits] it exists for the sake of another, because it operates in association.
Aph. 24. The cessation of the [false] notion regarding the soul takes place in him who knows the difference.
Aph. 25. Then the mind becomes deflected towards discrimination and bowed down towards [or by] Isolation.
Aph. 26. In the intervals thereof other thoughts arise from the self-continuant impressions.
Aph. 27. The means of the avoidance of these are explained to be as in the case of the afflictions.
Aph. 28. If the ascetic is not desirous of fruit [or is not inert] even when the perfect knowledge has been attained, [then] the meditation, [technically called] Dharma-Megha, cloud of virtue, takes place from the entire discriminative knowledge.
Aph. 29. Therefrom takes place removal of the afflictions and works.
Aph. 30. Then from inflniteness of the knowledge free from the impurity of all its obscurations, the knowable appears small.
Aph. 31. Thereupon takes place the termination of the succession of the modification of the qualities which have done what was to be done [or which have realised their end.]
Aph. 32. The order is counterpart of the moment, perceptible in the latter end of the modification.
Aph. 33. The re-absorption of those [qualities] void of the aim of the soul, or the abiding of the power of intelligence in its own nature, is Isolation.